Hangul and Other Languages
Hangul RomanizationsYou may want to refer to the Hangul Alphabets for details on each alphabets.
There are serveral ways to represent Hangul in Roman alphabets. Since phonemes from two different languages cannot be the same, it's always tricky to come up with a system that can satisfy everyone.
One is by MunHwaGwanGwangBu (문화관광부 MunHwaGwanGwangBu / Ministry of Culture and Tourism) on July 7, 2000. Another is by the Korean Language Society (한글학회 HanGeulHakHoe) in 1984. ISO (ISO/TR 11941:1996) is another method. The ISO method actually contains two, one for North Korea (DPRK) and the other for South Korea (ROK).
There are other less used ones such as the Yale, Lukoff and Horne methods.
The thing is, with all these standard methods, people still come up with their own ways of writing, for example, their names. I had my own, but I will try to follow the MCT method as much as possible.
The MCT method has the following priciples.
I have additional rules based on the MCT methods.
Hangul Consonant Romanization Table
(2) Before a consonant or as a final sound.
(3) As the first marker within a syllable box.
(4) As the final sound of a syllable.
(5) For "ㄹㄹ", it is written as "LL".
Hangul Vowel Romanization Table
Hangul Representation of Foreign WordsThere is also a set of rules for writing foreign language words in Hangul (외래어 표기법 OeRaeEo PyoGiBeop). The Ministry of Education (문교부 MunGyoBu, a previous incarnation of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism) has such a rule published in January 7, 1986. This rule has the following basic principles.
Anyway, the MOE's rules don't seem to be complete (e.g., it's missing "oo" for "foot"), but that will have to do here. Just try to match as closely as possible and that would be fine.
As you can easily notice, there are some English sounds that are not in Korean. So, for those cases, after double conversion, they might sound somewhat different. :) Here are some examples.
Consonant Hangul Table
(2) There is no difference between [l] and [r]. Or more accurately speaking, Koreans don't hear the difference.
(3) When it ends after a short vowel or appears between a short vowel and a consonent other than these consonents: [l], [r], [m] and [n].
(4) When it ends after a long vowel or it appears between a short vowel and these consonents: [l], [r], [m] and [n].
(5) It changes according to the vowel following it: 샤, 섀, 셔, 셰, 쇼, 슈, and 시.
(6) When it appears before a consonent.
(7) When it is the final sound or is before a consonent and when it is between a nasal sound ([m] or [n]) and a vowel.
(8) When it is between a non-nasal sound and a vowel or is before a nasal sound that is not before a vowel.
(9) Although it has 르, if 'r' does not appear before a vowel, it will be ignored (more like the British 'r').
Vowel Hangul Table
(2) It combines with the following vowel to become 야, 얘, 여, 예, 요, 유, and 이. However, for [djə], [ljə] and [njə], it is written as 디어, 리어, and 니어.
(3) It combines with the following vowel to become 워 (for [wə], [wɔ] and [wou]), 와 (for [wɑ]), 왜 (for [wæ]), 웨 (for [we]), 위 (for [wi]), and 우 (for [wu]). When it follows a consonent, except for [gw], [hw], and [kw], it is written as two syllables.
(4) Long vowels are the same as the short ones (e.g. 파트 for "part").
(5) Compound vowels are written as a sequence of shorter vowels (e.g., "time" as 타임) except for [ou] as 오 (e.g., "boat" as 보트), and [auə] as 아워 (e.g., "hour" as 아워).
Maintained by Younghong "Hong" Cho
Created: February 6, 2004